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Super volcanoes may be the cause of several of the past five planetary mass extinctions and a letter to and from Organizing for America, President Barack Obama about climate change.
Climate Change, Extreme Weather, Drought, Food Shortage, Super Volcanoes, Mass Extinctions, Movie 2012 - CNN iReport
The green house gas, methane, that is released from the melting northern ice may not be the only problem. You may have heard that the white ice reflects energy and heat back into space, the green house gas reflects it back, trapping it. What you may not have heard is that this energy that is not reflected back into space by the white ice may increase the planetary core temperature, and this may be linked to volcanoes. Super volcanoes may be the cause of several of the past five planetary mass extinctions.
Movie 2012, Super Volcanoes and Mass Extinctions
"they are heating up the earth's core, they suddenly act like microwaves"
The planet is rich in metals, has a magnetic field, and a molten core. Energy that is not reflected back into outer-space may increase the core temperature through dielectric heating, and through climate change, which would lead to increased volcanic activity. -- The earth magnetic field protects the planet from cosmic radiation and solar flares, it's several layers reduce the radiation. The magnetic field eventually absorbs through the earth what it has not completely reduced, and this is linked to the solar flares that are monitored along with the effects on the earth's core in this movie scene. -- THEORY; Photosynthesis occurs in plants, algae, and many species of bacteria, -- these use the sun's energy, "capture the sun's energy to split off water's hydrogen from oxygen", so similar to the white ice that reflects energy back into space, reducing the amount of energy, deforestation and the reduction of phytoplankton increase the amount of energy, which may increase the planetary core temperature. THEORY; Rising temperatures and melting ice leads to volcanic activity and eruptions, ash, hydrogen sulfide, sulfur oxides, carbon dioxide, acidic oceans, dead phytoplankton, .. , mass extinctions, ash "volcanic winter" which leads to cooling and the ice age.
SOLAR FLARES (movie link and energy from the sun)
Solar Blob Attacks the Earth!
On January 13, the National Weather Service’s Space Weather Prediction Center issued a scary-sounding news flash. “ALERT,” it said. “Type IV Radio Emission.” If that was too arcane-sounding to get you spooked, there was this detail that followed: type IV emissions usually result from a major eruption on the Sun. -- That is exactly what had happened. The Sun is currently entering the peak of its 11-year cycle of magnetic activity. When that happens — the actual peak comes in 2013 — its surface becomes blotchy with sunspots, its luminosity grows fractionally brighter, and it sends giant flares up in sweeping arcs above the solar atmosphere. Every so often, it also ejects a blob of hot, charged particles speeding into space.
A hydrogen sulfide bloom (green) stretching for about 150km along the coast of Namibia. As oxygen-poor water reaches the coast, bacteria in the organic-matter rich sediment produce hydrogen sulfide which is toxic to fish. -- Hydrogen sulfide has been implicated in several mass extinctions that have occurred in the Earth's past. In particular, a buildup of hydrogen sulfide in the atmosphere may have caused the Permian-Triassic extinction event 252 million years ago. -- Organic residues from these extinction boundaries indicate that the oceans were anoxic (oxygen-depleted) and had species of shallow plankton that metabolized H2S. The formation of H2S may have been initiated by massive volcanic eruptions, which emitted carbon dioxide and methane into the atmosphere, which warmed the oceans, lowering their capacity to absorb oxygen that would otherwise oxidize H2S. The increased levels of hydrogen sulfide could have killed oxygen-generating plants as well as depleted the ozone layer, causing further stress. Small H2S blooms have been detected in modern times in the Dead Sea and in the Atlantic ocean off the coast of Namibia.
Earth's Biggest Doomsday Event: Death By CO2 - Discovery News (article link)
Earth's biggest mass extinction rolled over the planet like hell on wheels. -- For the first time, paleontologists have pinned down exactly when and how fast the granddaddy of all mass extinctions took place, and their findings leave the finger of blame pointing squarely at a colossal and long-lived injection of carbon dioxide into the atmosphere. Sound familiar? -- That ancient carbon dioxide came not from cars and factories, of course, but from massive volcanic eruptions, brush fires, and possibly even the combustion of coal seams ignited by hot lava. -- The greenhouse gas increase, in turn, raised global temperatures and turned the oceans acidic and oxygen-deprived, among other trying consequences. Needless to say, life did not fare well. An oft-quoted estimate suggests that 90 percent of all marine life went extinct.
VOLCANIC ACTIVITY AND MASS EXTINCTION
Volcanic Activity and Mass Extinctions 1 of 2, Ice Age - CNN iReport
Ash and dust from volcano affected world climate, Tambora 1815 example, and in other videos the airline industry.
Volcanic Activity and Mass Extinctions 2 of 2, Oceans and Hydrogen Sulfide (H2S), SOx, CO2 - CNN iReport
Two large sources of carbon dioxide: volcanic eruptions and the decay of once living tissue ex: flooded vegetation. The most wide spread rock on the planet are what is at the bottom of the ocean, molten rock coming up the oceanic ridge, pillow lava.
Volcanic Activity and Climate Change, 1815 Global Starvation and Crop Failures (food shortage)
Under sea volcanoes and others creating a lot of different gases such as CO2, carbon dioxide, sulfur dioxide, and one volcano, Tambora in 1815, causing global starvation and crop failures.
U.S. Debate Question, what is the biggest threat to National Security? Climate Change, volcanic activity is linked to several of the past 5 mass extinctions that killed 90-95% of all living things on the planet.
Scientist Reports Iceland Volcanoes
"volcanic ash covering much of northern Europe" -- "the chances are good, Katla (super volcano) always goes after this one aka Eyjafjallajokull (small)"
Sulfur dioxide - Sulfur dioxide (also sulphur dioxide) is the chemical compound with the formula SO2. It is a poisonous gas with a pungent, irritating smell, that is released by volcanoes and in various industrial processes. Since coal and petroleum often contain sulfur compounds, their combustion generates sulfur dioxide unless the sulfur compounds are removed before burning the fuel. Further oxidation of SO2, usually in the presence of a catalyst such as NO2, forms H2SO4, and thus acid rain. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sulfur_dioxide
Sulfur trioxide - Sulfur trioxide (also spelled sulphur trioxide) is the chemical compound with the formula SO3. In the gaseous form, this species is a significant pollutant, being the primary agent in acid rain. It is prepared on massive scales as a precursor to sulfuric acid. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sulfur_trioxide
Hydrogen sulfide - Hydrogen sulfide (British English: hydrogen sulphide) is the chemical compound with the formula H2S. It is a colorless, very poisonous, flammable gas with the characteristic foul odor of rotten eggs. It often results from the bacterial breakdown of organic matter in the absence of oxygen, such as in swamps and sewers; this process is commonly known as anaerobic digestion. It also occurs in volcanic gases, natural gas, and some well waters. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hydrogen_sulfide
Rising temperatures and melting ice leads to volcanic activity and eruptions, ash, hydrogen sulfide, sulfur oxides, carbon dioxide, acidic oceans, dead phytoplankton, .. , mass extinctions, ash "volcanic winter" which leads to cooling and the ice age.
Mount Tambora (or Tamboro) is an active stratovolcano, also known as a composite volcano, on the island of Sumbawa, Indonesia. Sumbawa is flanked both to the north and south by oceanic crust, and Tambora was formed by the active subduction zone beneath it. This raised Mount Tambora as high as 4,300 m (14,100 ft), making it formerly one of the tallest peaks in the Indonesian archipelago. After a large magma chamber inside the mountain filled over the course of several decades, volcanic activity reached a historic climax in the super-colossal eruption of April 10, 1815. The 1815 eruption was approximately VEI 7, the only eruption of that size since the Lake Taupo eruption in about 180 CE. -- With an estimated ejecta volume of 160 km3 (38 cu mi), Tambora's 1815 outburst was the largest volcanic eruption in recorded history. The explosion was heard on Sumatra island more than 2,000 km (1,200 mi) away. Heavy volcanic ash falls were observed as far away as Borneo, Sulawesi, Java and Maluku islands. Most deaths from the eruption were from starvation and disease, as the eruptive fallout ruined agricultural productivity in the local region. The death toll was at least 71,000 people (the deadliest eruption in recorded history), of whom 11,000–12,000 were killed directly by the eruption; the often-cited figure of 92,000 people killed is believed to be overestimated. -- The eruption caused global climate anomalies that included the phenomenon known as "volcanic winter": 1816 became known as the "Year Without a Summer" because of the effect on North American and European weather. Agricultural crops failed and livestock died in much of the Northern Hemisphere, resulting in the worst famine of the 19th century. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mount_Tambora
Photosynthesis occurs in plants, algae, and many species of bacteria, -- these use the sun's energy, "capture the sun's energy to split off water's hydrogen from oxygen", so similar to the white ice that reflects energy back into space, reducing the amount of energy, deforestation and the reduction of phytoplankton increase the amount of energy, which may increase the planetary core temperature.
Photosynthesis -- is a process used by plants and other organisms to capture the sun's energy to split off water's hydrogen from oxygen. Hydrogen is combined with carbon dioxide (absorbed from air or water) to form glucose and release oxygen. -- Photosynthetic organisms are photoautotrophs, which means that they are repositories of energy, they are able to synthesize food directly from carbon dioxide, water, and using energy from light. -- The general equation for photosynthesis is therefore: 2n CO2 + 2n DH2 + photons → 2(CH2O)n + 2n DO -- Carbon dioxide + electron donor + light energy → carbohydrate + oxidized electron donor -- http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Photosynthesis
Photons -- Photons are emitted in many natural processes. For example, when a charge is accelerated it emits synchrotron radiation. During a molecular, atomic or nuclear transition to a lower energy level, photons of various energy will be emitted, from infrared light to gamma rays. A photon can also be emitted when a particle and its corresponding antiparticle are annihilated (for example, electron-positron annihilation). -- In empty space, the photon moves at c (the speed of light) and its energy and momentum are related by E = pc, where p is the magnitude of the momentum vector p. This derives from the following relativistic relation, with m = 0: -- The energy and momentum of a photon depend only on its frequency (ν) or inversely, its wavelength (λ):
THEORY - An interesting theory, the magnesium in the oceans, the shifting sea water, may be linked to the shifting magnetic poles.
ACIDIFICATION OF THE OCEANS
The oceans Phytoplankton produce the oxygen we breath. Some similarities from the Super Volcanoes mass extinctions: "Organic residues from these extinction boundaries indicate that the oceans were anoxic (oxygen-depleted) -- The formation of H2S may have been initiated by massive volcanic eruptions, which emitted carbon dioxide -- which warmed the oceans, lowering their capacity to absorb oxygen --"
Sigourney Weaver on the acidification of the oceans, phytoplankton
PhytoPlankton reduced by 40% since the 1950's
The Dead Zone Killing Gulf of Mexico Fishing 2008
MELTING SEA ICE/POLAR CAPS
Melting Northern Sea Passages and Polar Cap
Rising Sea Levels 2010
Melting Ice and Floods
Climate Change, Thinnest Ice On Record
Rising Sea Level and Flooding, Climate Change
2010-2012 THREE CONSECUTIVE RECORD SETTING YEARS
Heat Wave and Hottest 2010 April on Record
6 Month 2010 Warmest on record since 1880
Heat Wave 900 heat records broken 2011
Record Heat Spring 2012
Record warm waters and increased hurricanes
When Hurricane Sandy Went Rogue - Nova
A video about Hurricane Sandy. What they don't mention is that hurricanes make landfall in North and South Carolina, this time it went higher and hit New York and New Jersey.
NOAA predicts active 2013 Atlantic hurricane season
Hong Kong City of Hurricanes
New York City infrastructures playlist - YouTube http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=sdfg_JgEGkQ&list=PLpMndisOFHE831_UCzkY9Y0K57lFh6Pj9&index=1
The hurricane devastation in New York City. Some videos in a playlist about the New York City infrastructures, recovery, and redesign.
"Today we build sky scrappers a mile high in the desert when not so long ago this was thought impossible, tomorrow these sky scrappers will be on mars along with their underground infrastructures like in today's many cities." Technology page
THEORY, with climate change and as the Northern ice melts it effects the weather patterns, one is linked to where the hurricanes make land fall. North Carolina and other southern states were the usual area, now it may be the New York area, a harbor city. If this theory is true there may be extreme weather in Europe during the coming winter.
Hurricane Sandy and Oklahoma City Tornado YouTube playlist
HURRICANE SANDY AND OKLAHOMA CITY TORNADO
Hurricane Sandy October 30, 2012
Oklahoma City Tornado May 20, 2013
May 20: Nightly News Monday broadcast
In Moore, a chaotic scene with 'traffic as far as the eye can see'; Praying for the best in Oklahoma; Debris tossed thousands of feet; Moore Mayor: 'There is devastation all around us'; Moore residents await news of loved ones; 'Look at that school.this is war-zone terrible'; Roker: Tornado damage resembles Joplin, Mo.; Oklahoma tornado may be rated EF5 or higher
Drought of 2012
Extreme Weather 2012
DROUGHT AND FOOD SHORTAGE
Prices are already going up, supply and demand, due to drought and delaying the farm bill "farmers in limbo" could increase this food shortage. I see a pattern leading to a sixth mass extinction, which is why I'm very concerned about climate change and increased volcanic activity, extreme weather, drought, crop failures, food shortages, and global starvation.
Farmers Need to Plan Ahead With Drought and Climate Change
Drought and Food Shortage, Price of Porc Going Up
Food Prices Already Going Up in U.S. due to Drought
Climate Change and Crop Failures, Apples Increase in Price
Fewer Fish and Salmon due to global warming
Natural Gas and CO2 Emissions, New U.S. Domestic Millionaires in Ohio
Natural gas is often described as the cleanest fossil fuel, producing less carbon dioxide per joule delivered than either coal or oil and far fewer pollutants than other hydrocarbon fuels -- Natural gas produces far lower amounts of sulfur dioxide and nitrous oxides than any other hydrocarbon fuel -- "Because of this higher carbon efficiency of natural gas generation, as the fuel mix in the United States has change to reduce coal and increase natural gas generation carbon dioxide emissions have unexpectedly fallen. Those measured in the first quarter of 2012 were the lowest of any recorded for the first quarter of any year since 1992." -- Other sources of methane, the principal component of natural gas, include landfill gas, -- Experimental systems were being proposed for use in parts of Hertfordshire, UK, and Lyon in France. -- Gas generated in sewage treatment plants is commonly used to generate electricity. -- Manure and farm animals.
Wind Farms and Eagles, Vultures, Large Birds
The Future of Traffic Control? - NOVASwarmingDrones
A possible future traffic control system to eliminate traffic jams and energy waste?
Analysis: Obama climate agenda faces Supreme Court reckoning
The U.S. Chamber of Commerce and other industry groups, along with states such as Texas and Virginia, have filed nine petitions in recent weeks asking the justices to review four U.S. Environmental Protection Agency regulations that are designed to cut greenhouse-gas emissions. If the court were to take up any one of the petitions, it would be the biggest environmental case since Massachusetts v. EPA, the landmark 2007 decision in which the justices ruled that carbon dioxide is a pollutant that could be regulated under the Clean Air Act. The court's decision on whether to take up any of the petitions, likely to come in October, could help shape or shatter the administration's efforts to solidify its climate change agenda before President Obama leaves office in 2017. The EPA regulations are among Obama's most significant tools to address climate change after the U.S. Senate scuttled in 2010 his effort to pass a federal law that would, among other things, have set a cap on greenhouse gas emissions.
Barack Obama@BarackObama Tweets
Seven senators blocking #Gina4EPA are also climate deniers. Fed up? Call them out: http://OFA.BO/KnJqB8
CALL OUT CLIMATE DENIERS IN CONGRESS
President Obama has announced the biggest steps to fight climate change that any president has ever taken. He's not waiting around for climate deniers in Congress who won't even acknowledge the scientific fact of climate change to face reality in order to act—he's taking bold steps forward.
Four things you can do to get started today
The latest on the tar sand oil in Canada is that the EU has declared the oil "dirty oil" and Canada's Prime Minister Steven Harper is taking action through the World Commerce .. World Trade Organization (WTO) article url needed.
The oil at the heart of the Keystone pipeline controversy
The Keystone pipeline, a project to transport heavy crude from Canada to the Gulf Coast, is expected to provide thousands of temporary construction jobs in the U.S., but critics say the oil it carries comes at a terrible cost.
Oil demand threatens Ecuador's rainforest
Up to 8 million acres of pristine Ecuadorian rainforest is under threat by a new plan to drill for oil. A local tribe vows to fight to protect their land.
U.S., China agree to reduce use of hydrofluorocarbons
(Reuters) - U.S. President Barack Obama and his Chinese counterpart, Xi Jinping, agreed on Saturday to cooperate in fighting climate change by cutting the use of hydrofluorocarbons, or HFCs, the White House said a statement.
Climate Change Response Letter from White HouseJune 3, 2013
Thank you for writing. Few challenges are more urgent than climate change, and I appreciate your perspective.
For the sake of our children and our future, we must do more to combat climate change. Its effects, including warmer temperatures, extreme weather, and sea level rise, are already being felt across our Nation and around the world. The 12 hottest years on record have all come in the last 15. Heat waves, droughts, wildfires, and floods are all increasingly frequent and intense. We can choose to believe that these disasters are the result of coincidence, or we can accept the overwhelming judgment of science and act before it is too late. Our planet’s future depends on a global commitment to permanently reduce the greenhouse gas pollution causing climate change.
In my first year in office, I set a goal of significantly reducing greenhouse gas emissions by 2020. Today, my Administration’s actions have helped drive down our carbon emissions to their lowest level in nearly two decades. We are now on a path to a cleaner and more secure energy future—but there is still more work to be done.
Changing the way we produce and use energy is essential to protecting our environment for future generations. To decrease our dependence on oil and cut pollution, my Administration has established the toughest new fuel economy standards in history. These standards will double the fuel efficiency of our cars and light trucks by the middle of the next decade, saving families money at the pump while slashing harmful carbon pollution. Our Nation is becoming a global leader in advanced vehicles, and auto dealers are selling more hybrid vehicles than ever before. I am calling on Congress to use some of our oil and gas revenues to fund an Energy Security Trust that will drive new research and technology to shift our cars and trucks off oil for good. The Trust will support research into a range of cost-effective technologies, including advanced vehicles that run on electricity, homegrown biofuels, and domestically produced natural gas.
Thanks in part to my Administration’s investments in clean energy—the largest of their kind in American history—the United States has doubled renewable energy generation from wind, solar, and geothermal sources, and tens of thousands of Americans now have jobs as a result. I also set a goal to double renewable electricity production again by 2020 to build on our momentum and create even more jobs. The United States military—the largest energy consumer in the world—is reducing its fuel use and improving its operational performance through a historic commitment to clean energy.
We must lead the world in developing the technology and driving the innovation that will power tomorrow’s industries and jobs. Congress must come together to pursue a bipartisan, market-based solution to climate change. This should not be a divisive issue—it is one in which the best interests of our planet and the well-being of our economy are fundamentally aligned. I have repeatedly called on Congress to stop giving away $4 billion a year in oil and gas subsidies to an industry that has never been more profitable, and instead to pass clean energy tax credits to cultivate a market for innovation in clean energy technology in the United States. And if Congress does not act soon to reduce pollution and speed the transition to more sustainable sources of energy, I am prepared to take executive action.
As we work to reduce our own emissions and build resilience to climate change, we must also forge solutions that ensure other countries do the same. My Administration led international climate negotiations that produced the first national greenhouse gas reduction commitments by major developed and developing countries, the most robust transparency system for reviewing commitments to date, and historic global climate resiliency efforts. At the same time, we have worked through a range of international initiatives, including through the G-20, for the global phase-out of inefficient fossil fuel subsidies around the world. The threat posed by climate change is not confined within the borders of any country, and our response must continue to be global.
Finally, we must take action to prepare our communities for the consequences of climate change. Through the Climate Change Adaptation Task Force launched by my Administration in 2009, Federal agencies have developed first-ever initiatives to ensure our communities, economy, infrastructure, and natural resources are resilient in the face of extreme weather and other impacts of climate change. We are also helping increase the preparedness and resilience of American communities by providing actionable scientific information and technical assistance to cities and towns that are already feeling the impacts of rising seas, more severe storms, and other effects of climate change.
We must summon the spirit of optimism and the willingness to tackle tough problems that led previous generations to meet the challenges of their times. My Administration is making a serious, sustained commitment to address climate change, and I encourage you to learn more about our efforts atwww.WhiteHouse.gov/energy/climate-change.
Thank you, again, for writing.
PHIA tweets @PHIAtweets
Trees, vegetation, phytoplankton, all eat energy from the sun, ice reflects it back, what reaches earth heats its core, volcanic activity.
Hurricanes, Tornado, .. Volcanic Eruption next? Alaska and Mexico are erupting and throwing ash, etc, there are several volcanoes in between
New Jersey and New York may experience a similar hurricane this Oct-Nov, more record temperatures and wild fires, solar flares peek in 2013.
16 volcanoes with the greatest likelihood of causing great loss of life and property if eruptive activity resumes. Ocean vents a real threat
Iceland's Laki sent toxic sulfur around the hemisphere, Hekla could unleash millions of tons of ash without warning, Katla could be both.
PBS videos about volcanic activity and volcanoes give a good understanding of the danger linked to mass extinction.
U.S. is now faced with hurricanes on the right, tornadoes in the middle, and deadly volcanoes on the left.
New article mentions the sun's energy linked to climate change and increased volcanic activity "electron-reaction"
Letter to Organizing for Action and President Barack ObamaMay 31, 2013
A letter to barrackobama.com, organizing for action and President Barack Obama about immigration, the right to bear arms, and climate change.
Organizing for Action and President Barack Obama
I believe that immigration, capitalism and free markets, and civil rights were the key to the United States economic success.
I believe that rage shooting factors should play a part in prevention similar to suicide factors play a part in suicide prevention, and believe that the right to bear arms and freedom of speech should not be weakened since they are central in protecting our rights and freedoms. I also know that similar to the workplace strategy of using participating employees to create justification to take action there are forces that move through organized crime that try to create justification to weaken both of these central civil rights, which are linked to subjugation through organized crime.
I also believe that climate change should be on the United States top threats to national security given its link to mass extinction. The increased volcanic activity due to climate change, the melting ice that reflects energy back into space, deforestation that eats the suns energy before it reaches the earth, the increase in green house gas, CO2 levels, floods that increase CO2 levels, the acidification of the oceans due to CO2 and %30-%40 decline in plankton that also eats energy and produce oxygen, are all linked to increased volcanic activity, eruptions, more CO2 and gases, ash linked global starvation and ice age, and mass extinction pattern or "doomsday volcanoes".
The PBS videos on the page give a good indication of the danger, mention Yellowstone park, and several other volcanoes that have increased in activity such as Katla.
I'd like to mention that Alaska and Mexico have increased in activity, which are part of a chain of mountains that run up the United States and several other volcanoes.
Canada's tar sands and Peru's deforestation for oil production are mentioned as political issues along with tweets from President Barack Obama.
The U.S. is faced with hurricanes on the right, tornadoes in the middle, and deadly volcanoes on the left. I see improving building technology for climate change, ocean colonization, and the colonization of the moon and mars linked.
Rage Shooting Factors
Climate Change & Mass Extinction
Psychological Harassment Information Association
EXTREME WEATHER EUROPE 2013
Snowstorms hit Europe
January 20, 2013 Extreme weather in Western Europe brings travel chaos as flights are forced to come to a halt.
Thousands more forced from home by Germany flooding
An asteroid collision may be linked to one of the mass extinctions. It is possible that volcanic activity, linked to climate change, may have resulted in 4 mass extinctions and an asteroid collision resulted in 1 mass extinction.
Dark, massive asteroid to fly by Earth on May 31 (2013)
It's 1.7 miles long. Its surface is covered in a sticky black substance similar to the gunk at the bottom of a barbecue. If it impacted Earth it would probably result in global extinction.
Asteroid too close for comfort?
Nye: Asteroid to miss earth by 15 min.
Half-a-football-field asteroid nears Earth
PBS | NOVA FULL EPISODES
From Japan’s Mt. Fuji to Yellowstone’s buried supervolcano, how can we best prepare for the most lethal eruptions?
"Most of the western united states would be buried in thick ash deposits capable of collapsing buildings and suffocating people. Hurricane force flows of Super heated gas and ash would blast out covering a 2000 square miles area. A towering column of choking ash cloud would rise 25 miles into the atmosphere blocking out sun light across the planet, temperatures would plummet, crops would fail and millions of people to die of starvation." (19:30)
Could the explosion of Iceland’s ticking time bombs cause cold and famine worldwide?
chapter 5 of 6 Icelands Laki sent a toxic cloud of sulfer around the hemisphere, Hekla could unleash millions of tons of ash without warning, Katla is rumbling and could be a combination of both. The sound does not seem to be working through embeded video, watch the episodes directly on the PBS site.
Mt St Helens: Back From the Dead
Thirty years after the massive eruption, could it happen again?
A meteor burst into a fireball over Siberia. Can we spot the next deadly asteroid in time?
Making Stuff: Cleaner
Can innovative materials help solve the energy crisis and lead to a sustainable future?
Donate to PBS and Nova scienceNow click here
Al Gore on Climate Change (Cohpenhagen, Melting Ice, ..)
Al Gore: New thinking on the climate crisis (TEDTalks)
New and energy efficient buildings, buildings and infrastructures that can withstand extreme weather ex: New York and New Jersey. New and energy efficient infrastructures, reducing traffic jams, reducing energy waste, etc, new train systems, new traffic control systems.
ENERGY AND GLOBAL WARMING
The article starts by discussing the melting white ice that reflects energy back into space and vegetation, trees, phytoplankton that eat the sun's energy before they reach the earth, dielectric heat, the earth warming and core temperatures rising. Some ideas to counter climate change could be linked to these, mimic these, or prevention like deforestation.
"The energy required to boil rock and throw it out in the air like water, mother nature, it's the ultimate show." (4:00) Deadliest Volcanoes
America's Natural Gas Alliance
Think About It. With natural gas, America is on a path toward a better energy future.
T. Boone Pickens wants 18 wheelers to be on natural gas. New infrastructures are being developed to capture green house gas before they reach the atmosphere, garbage disposal sites, waste water, etc. Garbage trucks could also implement natural gas engines along with hybrid batteries and the Honda stop and go recharge system. Garbage trucks stop and go a lot.
Offshore drilling? Most people do not like the idea of offshore drilling but there are vents that release methane gas into the oceans, and this with the increasing volcanic activity may get worse on the ocean floors. article url needed. Pacific Rim symbolism
Study Warning of Massive Release of Methane From Melting Ice Not Without Critics
Published in the journal Nature, the report warned that the estimated 50 gigatons of methane trapped inside the East Siberian Arctic Shelf is likely to be released within the next several decades as it thaws, causing an estimated $60 trillion in costs to countries everywhere due to resulting extreme weather.
Arctic methane 'time bomb' could have huge economic costs
Previous work has shown that the diminishing ice cover in the East Siberian sea is allowing the waters to warm and the methane to leach out. Scientists have found plumes of the gas up to a kilometre in diameter rising from these waters. -- They worked out that this would increase climate impacts such as flooding, sea level rise, damage to agriculture and human health to the tune of $60 trillion.
Scientist claim that if we could capture lighting energy we could power a city for a year, the problem is that there is not always lighting and it doesn't strike at the same place all the time, except at Lake Maracaibo in Venezuela.
Lightning Power Mechanism
The Catatumbo Lightning (Spanish Relámpago del Catatumbo) is an atmospheric phenomenon in Venezuela. It occurs only over the mouth of the Catatumbo River where it empties into Lake Maracaibo. The frequent, powerful flashes of lightning over this relatively small area are considered to be the world's largest single generator of tropospheric ozone, that is, ozone that does not replenish the stratospheric ozone layer. -- It originates from a mass of storm clouds at a height of more than 5 km during 140 to 160 nights a year, 10 hours per day and up to 280 times per hour. It occurs over and around Lake Maracaibo, typically over the bog area formed where the Catatumbo River flows into the lake. -- After appearing continually for centuries, the lightning ceased from January to April 2010, apparently due to drought. This raised fears that it might have been extinguished permanently. The phenomenon reappeared after several months. -- MECHANISM -- The Catatumbo lightning usually develops between the coordinates 8°30′N 71°0′W and 9°45′N 73°0′W. The storms (and associated lightning) are likely the result of the winds blowing across the Maracaibo Lake and surrounding swampy plains. These air masses inevitably meet the high mountain ridges of the Andes, the Perijá Mountains (3,750m), and Mérida's Cordillera, enclosing the plain from three sides. The heat and moisture collected across the plains creates electrical charges and, as the air masses are destabilized at the mountain ridges, result in almost continual thunderstorm activity. The phenomenon is characterized by almost continuous lightning, mostly within the clouds, which is produced in a large vertical development of clouds that form large electric arcs between 2 and 10 km in height (or more). The lightning tends to start approximately one hour after dusk. -- Among the major modern studies there is the one done by Melchor Centeno, who attributes the origin of the thunderstorms to closed wind circulation in the region. Between 1966 and 1970, Andrew Zavrostky investigated the area three times, with assistance from the University of the Andes. He concluded that the lightning would have several epicentres in the marshes of Juan Manuel de Aguas National Park, Claras Aguas Negras, and west Lake Maracaibo. In 1991 he suggested that the phenomenon occurred due to cold and warm air currents meeting around the area. The study also speculated that an isolated cause for the lightning might be the presence of uranium in the bedrock. -- Between 1997 and 2000 Nelson Falcón conducted several studies, and produced the first microphysics model of the Catatumbo Lightning. He identified the methane produced by the swamps and the oil deposits in the area as a major cause of the phenomenon. It has been noted to have little effects on local flora such as ferns, despite concerns.
Fusion and Solar Nanotechnology (CO2) - The Big Potential for Solar Technology
Scientist are developing Magnetic Chambers for Fusion Reactors and Plasma Engines to drive us at high speed to Mars, and beyond.
Energy from the Sea: Closer Than You Think
The two companies will develop a 10-megawatt power plant using ocean Thermal Energy conversion (OTEC) technology in waters off southern China's Hainan Island. Construction is expected to be completed in 2017.
[*] Alerts: Mexico's Super Volcano, Lava flowed Tuesday from two Alaskan volcanoes.
Ideas worth spreading
Climate change: Oh, it's real. (8 talks)
We still have a lot to learn about climate change, about why it's happening and what that means. But one thing is clear: It's real, alright. These talks provide a primer on the issue of our times.
Architectural inspiration (8 talks)
Master architects share their vision for buildings that inflate, float, twist and glitter, while artfully addressing the challenges faced by their residents, their cities and the planet.
Sustainability by design (7 talks)
Humans are builders and creators -- but how can we build thoughtfully, without waste? These talks explore sustainable design -- both past and present -- and its beautiful, inspiring results.
'T. Rex' of the Seas Called First Top Killer(Jan 7, 2013)
"the mass extinction humans are causing now, scientists added" -- "Newfound fossils of a giant dolphin-shaped reptilian predator are now shedding light on how the world recovered after the most devastating mass extinction in history, researchers say. -- This prehistoric sea monster could provide information on how the planet might deal with the mass extinction humans are causing now, scientists added."
Tianjin Eco-City - under development in north east China
China is taking the lead, building what has been described as the world’s largest eco-city. -- Adam Shaw visits Tianjin Eco-City - under development in north east China - to see how it plans to balance urban expansion and the the impact on natural resources and the environment.
NOAA: 2012 broke U.S. heat records
"That drought shriveled crops across the American farm belt, leading to an expected rise in food prices in 2013, according to the U.S. Agriculture Department. It also turned forests of the mountain West into stands of tinder that exploded into catastrophic wildfires over the summer, scorching millions of acres and destroying hundreds of homes. -- And then there was Superstorm Sandy, a late October post-tropical cyclone that killed more than 110 people in the United States and nearly 70 more in the Caribbean and Canada. Damage estimates from the storm run around $80 billion in New York and New Jersey alone. -- The report is likely to fuel new concerns over a warming climate. Seven of the 10 hottest years in U.S. records, which date back to 1895, and four of the hottest five have now occurred since 1990, according to NOAA figures. -- The year also saw Arctic sea ice hit a record low in more than 30 years of satellite observations and studies that found the world's major ice sheets have been shrinking at an increasing rate."
Waters off Northeast US coast unusually warm, says NOAA
Sea surface temperatures on the Northeast US Continental Shelf reached the highest recorded in 150 years, says an advisory issued by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration.
Sea surface temperatures reach highest level in 150 years
Temperature is also affecting distributions of fish and shellfish on the Northeast Shelf. The advisory provides data on changes in distribution, or shifts in the center of the population, of seven key fishery species over time. The four southern species - black sea bass, summer flounder, longfin squid and butterfish - all showed a northeastward or upshelf shift. American lobster has shifted upshelf over time but at a slower rate than the southern species. Atlantic cod and haddock have shifted downshelf."
NASA says that temperate regions will experience more drought while the tropics more extreme rains
ISS photo shows erupting volcano
The volcano, which erupted in the Aleutian Islands, began spewing ash on May 13, and the photo was taken five days later.
Volcano rumbles in Costa Rica
The alert level was raised to green after the Turrialba Volcano in Costa Rica spewed ash for e third day. NBCNews.com's Dara Brown reports.
Mega-Eruption: Scientists Connect a Mass Extinction to a Major Lava Flow
"What exactly happened during this extinction is of more than academic importance: The release of tremendous amounts of CO2 into the atmosphere over a brief period of time bears some similarity to our current situation, as we create billions of tons of CO2 from the burning of fossil fuels like coal and oil. “It behooves us to find out what’s going on,” says Olsen. A mass extinction event of our own is something we’d best avoid."
Yellowstone's Volcano Bigger Than Thought
"The magma reservoir is at least 50 percent larger than previously imaged." -- Knowing the volume of molten magma beneath Yellowstone is important for estimating the size offuture eruptions, Farrell told OurAmazingPlanet.
Alaska Volcano Spews Ash Near Air Route
A remote but long-restless Alaska volcano rumbled to life on Saturday with three explosions and started emitting a continuous plume of ash, steam and gas in an area important to air traffic, scientists said.
Five killed as Philippine volcano starts spewing rocks and ash
Four German tourists and one of their Filipino guides were killed Tuesday when one of thePhilippines' most active volcanoes started spewing large rocks and ash, officials said.
NASA satellite snaps spectacular images of volcanic eruption
Two of the satellite's instruments imaged the volcano, which awoke last October. The Operational Land Imager, which detects visible light, as well as infrared, and short-wave electromagnetic radiation, snapped a photo of the smoke and ash spewing from the volcano.
2 Alaska volcanoes on alert as lava flows [*]
Lava flowed Tuesday from two Alaskan volcanoes, with authorities placing both on the second-highest alert levels because "sudden explosions ... are possible with little or no warning."
Black Swan Watch: Mexico's Super Volcano Could Be the Next Market Catalyst [*]
Earlier this week, Mexico's National Disaster Prevention Center raised the alert level for Popocatépetl to "Yellow Phase III," which is the fifth greatest of seven levels; the highest alert is, logically, "Red Phase II." Joking aside, rising seismic activity, plumes of smoke and steam, and the reported melting of the glacial peak due to rising ground temperatures suggest Popo is ready to go loco. -- One of the world's largest volcanoes, reaching over three miles high at 17,887 feet, "Popo" is only overshadowed by its dormant (but not extinct) neighbor volcano Pico de Orizaba, which is the third highest peak in North America at 18,491 feet.
Mexico volcano spews ash two miles high [?]
A powerful explosion of burning ash is sent two miles high by a volcano just 40 miles outside of Mexico City. NBCNews.com's Dara Brown reports.
Mount St. Helens
Mount St. Helens erupted on May 18, 1980, at 08:32 Pacific Daylight Time
Mount St. Helens is an active stratovolcano located in Skamania County, Washington, in the Pacific Northwest region of the United States. -- The volcano is located in the Cascade Range and is part of the Cascade Volcanic Arc, a segment of the Pacific Ring of Fire that includes over 160 active volcanoes. This volcano is well known for its ash explosions and pyroclastic flows. -- Mount St. Helens is most notorious for its catastrophic eruption on May 18, 1980, at 8:32 a.m. PDT, the deadliest and most economically destructive volcanic event in the history of the United States. Fifty-seven people were killed; 250 homes, 47 bridges, 15 miles (24 km) of railways, and 185 miles (298 km) of highway were destroyed.
Mount Shasta can release volcanic ash, pyroclastic flows or dacite and andesite lava. Its deposits can be detected under nearby small towns totaling 20,000 in population. Mount Shasta has an explosive, eruptive history. There are fumaroles on the mountain, which show that Mount Shasta is still alive.
Although Mount Rainier is an active volcano, as of 2010 there was no evidence of an imminent eruption. However, an eruption could be devastating for all areas surrounding the volcano. Mount Rainier is currently listed as a Decade Volcano, or one of the 16 volcanoes with the greatest likelihood of causing great loss of life and property if eruptive activity resumes.
Alaska volcano erupts with lava, ash
The remote Pavlof Volcano is erupting, releasing ash, steam and gas visible from Cold Bay, Alaska.
Alaska volcano spews ash 20,000 feet [?]
An Alaska volcano exhibiting "elevated seismic activity" has spewed ash clouds skyward -- as high as 20,000 feet above sea level -- an observatory reported Wednesday.
One by one, homes in Calif. subdivision sinking
Homes sinking in hilly volcanic country region of California. The houses can move many feet on one day and just a fraction of an inch the next. -- Officials believe water that has bubbled to the surface is playing a role in the destruction. But nobody can explain why suddenly there is plentiful water atop the hill in a county with groundwater shortages. -- It is not unusual for groundwater in the region to make its way to the surface then subside. Many natural hot springs and geysers receded underground in the early 1900s and have since been tapped for geothermal power.
California subdivision sinks into the ground
Several homes have been abandoned or evacuated as the ground below gives way in Lake County, Calif. Local officials are baffled as to why the collapse is happening.
Carbon dioxide now at highest level in 5 million years
For the first time in roughly 5 million years, the amount of carbon dioxide in the Earth's atmosphere is forecast to top 400 parts per million next month throughout much of the Northern Hemisphere. -- Carbon dioxide is the greenhouse gas that is responsible for 63% of the warming attributable to all greenhouse gases, according to the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's Earth System Research La
Scientists issue dire warning about global warming
The amount of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere has surpassed a threshold that scientists say signals we are running out of time to reverse the impact of global warming.
Arctic Ocean 'acidifying rapidly'
They forecast major changes in the marine ecosystem, but say there is huge uncertainty over what those changes will be.
It is well known that CO2 warms the planet, but less well-known that it also makes the alkaline seas more acidic when it is absorbed from the air.
The Arctic region contains a vast ice-covered ocean roughly centred on the Earth's geographic North Pole -- Absorption is particularly fast in cold water so the Arctic is especially susceptible, and the recent decreases in summer sea ice have exposed more sea surface to atmospheric CO2. -- The Arctic's vulnerability is exacerbated by increasing flows of freshwater from rivers and melting land ice, as freshwater is less effective at chemically neutralising the acidifying effects of CO2. -- The researchers say the Nordic Seas are acidifying over a wide range of depths - most quickly in surface waters and more slowly in deep waters.
Aboriginal population's ice age plunge
cool and incredibly dry conditions between about 21,000 and 18,000 BC had cut a swathe through the population
Climate change killed off megafauna: study
climate fluctuations killed off most of the giant species well before humans arrived.
Canada's Arctic glaciers headed for unstoppable thaw: study
OSLO (Reuters) - Canadian glaciers that are the world's third biggest store of ice after Antarctica and Greenland seem headed for an irreversible melt that will push up sea levels, scientists said on Thursday. About 20 percent of the ice in glaciers, on islands such as Ellesmere or Devon off northern Canada, could vanish by the end of the 21st century in a melt that would add 3.5 cm (1.4 inch) to global sea levels, they said.
Big Melt Expected for Canadian Arctic Glaciers
For the study, published online Thursday (March 7) in the journal Geophysical Research Letters, scientists used computer models to predict how the glaciers would respond to future climate change. The results were not reassuring. "Even if we assume that global warming is not happening quite so fast, it is still highly likely that the ice is going to melt at an alarming rate," study leader Jan Lenaerts of Utrecht University said in a statement. "The chances of it growing back are very slim."
Encroaching sea already a threat in Caribbean
The people along this vulnerable stretch of eastern Grenada have been watching the sea eat away at their shoreline in recent decades, a result of destructive practices such as the extraction of sand for construction and ferocious storm surges made worse by climate change,
Ice-Free Arctic May Be Near, Study Suggests
"We want to know these mechanisms so we can understand better if the climate system has real, serious tipping points," Brigham-Grette said. "As we get warmer, is there a tipping point where the climate would shift into a different kind of regime that we would be worried about?"
Melting glaciers contribute to rising ocean levels
A new study in the journal Science estimates that 30 percent of sea-level rise is due to melting glaciers.
How Do Wind Turbines Kill Birds?
Wind energy is frequently touted as a clean, green source of energy that can reduce our dependence on fossil fuels. But like all sources of energy, wind power comes at a cost — one that's too often borne by eagles, hawks, falcons, owls and other birds. Wind turbines kill more than 573,000 birds each year in the United States, according to The Associated Press, including federally protected species like bald eagles and golden eagles.
Nuclear fusion is the 'perfect energy source'
"Solar, advanced nuclear fission, and fusion offer the best hope but, unfortunately, none are ready for large-scale deployment."
Biggest Solar Flares of the Year Erupt from Active Sun (Video)
"Increased numbers of flares are quite common at the moment because the sun's normal 11-year activity cycle is ramping up toward solar maximum, which is expected in 2013,"
North Pole shifts due to global warming
Earth's two geographic poles do not have a fixed location. As the distribution of snow, rain and humidity changes every year, the poles too wobble around, usually in a circular manner. Besides this seasonal drift, there is a long range movement which scientists believe is driven by continental drift - the movement of land plates relative to each other. -- GRACE's twin probes measure changes in the Earth's gravity field, which can be used to track shifts in the distribution of water and ice, Nature said. The researchers led by Jianli Chen, a geophysicist, used GRACE data to model how melting icecaps affect Earth's mass distribution. They found that more than 90% of the post-2005 polar shift was because of increasing ice loss and sea-level rise. -- The explanation for this is that when mass is lost in one part of a spinning sphere, its spin axis will tilt directly toward the position of the loss, according to Erik Ivins, a geophysicist at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Pasadena, California quoted by Nature. This is exactly what was observed in the case of the North Pole. -- These findings have opened the way to estimate long term ice loss by studying polar drift. Scientists can locate the north and south poles to within about 0.9 millimeters by using Global Positioning System measurements to determine the angle of the Earth's spin.
'Dramatic decline' warning for plants and animals
More than half of common plant species and a third of animals could see a serious decline in their habitat range because of climate change.
Climate research nearly unanimous on human causes, survey finds
A survey of thousands of peer-reviewed papers in scientific journals has found 97.1% agreed that climate change is caused by human activity.
A new Gallup poll finds that more Americans are growing concerned about global warming, with 58 percent saying they “personally worry” about the effects of global warming at least a fair amount. This is up from 51 percent in 2011.
Two-mile-wide tornado kills at least 51 -- including 7 elementary school students - CNN
Dark, massive asteroid to fly by Earth on May 31
It's 1.7 miles long. Its surface is covered in a sticky black substance similar to the gunk at the bottom of a barbecue. If it impacted Earth it would probably result in global extinction.
Report: CO2 not responsible for global warming
Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) — not carbon emissions — are the real culprit behind global warming, claims a new study out of the University of Waterloo. “Conventional thinking says that the emission of human-made non-CFC gases such as carbon dioxide has mainly contributed to global warming. But we have observed data going back to the Industrial Revolution that convincingly shows that conventional understanding is wrong,” -- “In fact, the data shows that CFCs conspiring with cosmic rays caused both the polar ozone hole and global warming,” Lu said. Lu’s findings were published in the International Journal of Modern Physics B and analyzed data from 1850 to the present. -- Lu’s study runs counter to the long-standing argument that carbon dioxide emissions were the driving force behind global warming. -- Lu notes that data from 1850 to 1970 show carbon emissions increasing due to the Industrial Revolution. However, global temperatures stayed constant. “The conventional warming model of CO2, suggests the temperatures should have risen by 0.6°C over the same period, similar to the period of 1970-2002,” reads the study’s press release -- According to the National Institutes of Health, CFCs are considered a greenhouse gas, like carbon dioxide, because they absorb heat in the atmosphere and send some of it back to the earth’s surface, which contributes to global warming. “From the University of Waterloo, an extraordinary claim,’ writes global warming blogger Anthony Watt. “While plausible, due to the fact that CFC’s have very high [Global Warming Potential] numbers, their atmospheric concentrations compared to CO2 are quite low, and the radiative forcings they add are small by comparison to CO2.” “This may be nothing more than coincidental correlation,” Watt added. “But, I have to admit, the graph is visually compelling. But to determine if his proposed cosmic-ray-driven electron-reaction mechanism is valid, I’d say it is a case of ‘further study is needed’, and worth funding.” (University of Waterloo (commonly referred as Waterloo or UW) is a public research university whose main campus is located in Waterloo, Ontario, Canada.)
Scientists develop CO2 sequestration technique that produces 'supergreen' hydrogen fuel
Lawrence Livermore scientists have discovered and demonstrated a new technique to remove and store atmospheric carbon dioxide while generating carbon-negative hydrogen and producing alkalinity, which can be used to offset ocean acidification. The team demonstrated, at a laboratory scale, a system that uses the acidity normally produced in saline water electrolysis to accelerate silicate mineral dissolution while producing hydrogen fuel and other gases. The resulting electrolyte solution was shown to be significantly elevated in hydroxide concentration that in turn proved strongly absorptive and retentive of atmospheric CO2. Further, the researchers suggest that the carbonate and bicarbonate produced in the process could be used to mitigate ongoing ocean acidification, similar to how an Alka Seltzer neutralizes excess acid in the stomach. "We not only found a way to remove and store carbon dioxide from the atmosphere while producing valuable H2, we also suggest that we can help save marine ecosystems with this new technique,"
North Pole melts, forms lake at top of the world
The shallow lake began forming on July 13 after an especially warm month, which saw temperatures rise 1-3 degrees Celsius over the average, reports The Atlantic.
Antarctica permafrost melt spurred by solar radiation boost
That type of accelerated melt could become typical at the fringes of much larger areas, such as Antarctica’s ice sheets and the land ice in Greenland. Unlike the dry valley thaw, those melts would contribute significantly to risingsealevels.
Message from the mud: East Antarctic meltdown could cause massive sea rise
ClimateChange: The last time concentrations of the greenhouse gas carbon dioxide were as high as they are today, big chunks of the seemingly stable East Antarctic ice sheet melted and helped raise global sea levels more than 65 feet higher than they are now, a new study suggests.
Building 'eats' smog - CNN.com Video
Mexico City has a pollution problem. So why not have buildings that eat smog?
Alberta Canada's Oil Sands: Pollution and Cancer Rates Higher, Benzene?
"The Canadian Government and industry have always maintained that the toxins from the river come from the natural ground chemicals."
Polar Bear Brains have High Levels of Environment Toxins: Study
The study was conducted by researchers at the Carleton University in Canada and Aarhus University in Denmark who found that at least eight #brain regions of polar bears had significant amount of several PFASs including perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) as well as several compounds of the perfluorinated carboxylate (PFCAs).
OCEAN GARBAGE PATCH
Plastics and Ocean Garbage Patch
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Movie 2012, Super Volcanoes and Mass Extinctions